Wednesday, September 30, 2009

Why Men Matter: Mating Patterns Drive Evolution of Human Lifespan

LINK

From ScienceBlog (below is the complete text):

Old men chasing young women: A good thing

It turns out that older men chasing younger women contributes to human longevity and the survival of the species, according to new findings by researchers at Stanford and the University of California-Santa Barbara.

Evolutionary theory says that individuals should die of old age when their reproductive lives are complete, generally by age 55 in humans, according to demographer Cedric Puleston, a doctoral candidate in biological sciences at Stanford. But the fatherhood of a small number of older men is enough to postpone the date with death because natural selection fights life-shortening mutations until the species is finished reproducing.

"Rod Stewart and David Letterman having babies in their 50s and 60s provide no benefit for their personal survival, but the pattern [of reproducing at a later age] has an effect on the population as a whole," Puleston said. "It's advantageous to the species if these people stick around. By increasing the survival of men you have a spillover effect on women because men pass their genes to children of both sexes."

"Why Men Matter: Mating Patterns Drive Evolution of Human Lifespan," was published Aug. 29 in the online journal Public Library of Science ONE. Shripad Tuljapurkar, the Morrison Professor of Population Studies at Stanford; Puleston; and Michael Gurven, an assistant professor of anthropology at UCSB, co-authored the study in an effort to understand why humans don't die when female reproduction ends.

Human ability to scale the so-called "wall of death"—surviving beyond the reproductive years—has been a center of scientific controversy for more than 50 years, Puleston said. "The central question is: Why should a species that stops reproducing by some age stick around afterward?" he said. "Evolutionary theory predicts that, over time, harmful mutations that decrease survival will arise in the population and will remain invisible to natural selection after reproduction ends." However, in hunter-gatherer societies, which likely represent early human demographic conditions and mating patterns, one-third of people live beyond 55 years, past the reproductive lifespan for women. Furthermore, life expectancy in today's industrialized countries is 75 to 85 years, with mortality increasing gradually, not abruptly, following female menopause.

Grandmother hypothesis

In 1966, William Hamilton, a British evolutionary biologist, worked out the mathematics describing the "wall of death." Since then, the most popular explanation for why humans don't die by age 55 has been termed the "grandmother hypothesis," which suggests that women enhance the survival of their children and grandchildren by living long enough to care for them and "increasing the success of their genes," Puleston said. However, Hamilton's work has been difficult to express as a mathematical and genetic argument explaining why people live into old age.

Unlike previous research on human reproduction, this study—for the first time—includes data on males, a tweak that allowed the researchers to begin answering the "wall of death" question by matching it to human mortality patterns. According to Puleston, earlier studies looked only at women, because scientists can reproduce good datasets for humans entirely based on information related to female fertility and survival rates.

"Men's fertility is contingent on women's fertility—you have to figure out how they match up. We care about reproduction because that is a currency by which force of selection is counted. If we have not accounted for the entire pattern of reproduction, we may be missing something that's important to evolution."

Men and longevity

In the paper, the researchers analyzed "a general two-sex model to show that selection favors survival for as long as men reproduce." The scientists presented a "range of data showing that males much older than 50 years have substantial realized fertility through matings with younger females, a pattern that was likely typical among early humans." As a result, Puleston said, older male fertility helps to select against damaging cell mutations in humans who have passed the age of female menopause, consequently eliminating the "wall of death."

"Our analysis shows that old-age male fertility allows evolution to breach Hamilton's wall of death and predicts a gradual rise in mortality after the age of female menopause without relying on 'grandmother' effects or economic optimality," the researchers say in the paper.

The scientists compiled longevity and fertility data from two hunter-gatherer groups, the Dobe !Kung of the Kalahari and the Ache of Paraguay, one of the most isolated populations in the world. They also looked at the forager-farmer Yanomamo of Brazil and Venezuela, and the Tsimane, an indigenous group in Bolivia. "They're living a lifestyle that our ancestors lived and their fertility patterns are probably most consistent with our ancestors," Puleston said about the four groups. The study also looked at several farming villages in Gambia and, for comparison, a group of modern Canadians.

In the less developed, traditional societies, males were as much as 5-to-15 years older than their female partners. In the United States and Europe, the age spread was about two years. "It's a universal pattern that in typical marriages men are older than women," Puleston said. "The age gaps vary by culture, but in every group we looked at men start [being reproductive] later. At the end of reproduction, male fertility rates taper off gradually, as opposed to the fairly sharp decline in female fertility by menopause." Despite small differences based on marriage traditions, all women and most men in the six groups stopped having children by their 50s, the researchers found. But some men, particularly high-status males, continued to reproduce into their 70s. The paper noted that the age gap is most pronounced in societies that favor polygyny, where a man takes several wives, and in gerontocracies, where older men monopolize access to reproductive women. The authors also cite genetic and anthropological evidence that early humans were probably polygynous as well.

Older male fertility also exists in societies supporting serial monogamy, because men are more likely to remarry than women. "For these reasons, we argue that realized male fertility was substantial at ages well past female menopause for much of human history and the result is reflected in the mortality patterns of modern populations," the authors say. "We conclude that deleterious mutations acting after the age of female menopause are selected against … solely as a result of the matings between older males and younger females."

According to Puleston, the "grandmother hypothesis" may be true, but the real pattern of male fertility extends beyond this explanation. "The key question is: Does the population have a greater growth rate if men are reproducing at a later age? The answer is 'yes.' The age of last reproduction gets pushed into the 60s and 70s if you add men to the analysis. Hamilton's approach was right, but in a species where males and females have different reproductive patterns, you need a two-sex model. You can't correctly estimate the force of selection if you leave men out of the picture. As a man myself, it's gratifying to know that men do matter."

Grants from the U.S. National Institute on Aging supported this study.

The International Free Press Society declares September 30 International Free Press Day


http://www.internationalfreepresssociety.org/

The International Free Press Society declares September 30 International Free Press Day

New York, NY – September 28, 2009: On September 30, 2005 the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published 12 drawings of Islam’s prophet Mohammed by 12 Danish artists in order to demonstrate that prohibitions on depictions of Mohammed as stipulated by Islamic law (sharia) did not trump Denmark’s freedom of the press.

In an era in which the act of speaking out in the Western world has become increasingly subject to the pressures of what we know as political correctness, this bold affirmation of free press rights by Danish journalists makes September 30 a banner day. In commemoration of their courage, then, the International Free Press Society declares September 30 to be International Free Press Day.

To mark the occasion, the International Free Press Society is presenting artist Kurt Westergaard on his first public tour in the USA, where he will be making appearances in New York City, Yale and Princeton. Since publishing his cartoon, the now-iconic Turban-bomb Mohammed image, Westergaard, 73, has required state security to protect him from violent retribution for violating the tenets of sharia in Denmark. Such threats have included an assassination plot uncovered by Danish police in February of last year. The day after the plot was uncovered, a number of Danish newspapers joined Jyllands-Posten in reprinting the Westergaard cartoon in solidarity with the cause of freedom of the press.

To further advance the cause of freedom of the press, the International Free Press Society will use the occasion of this first International Free Press Day to salute Kurt Westergaard, and to call, once again, for the repeal of all blasphemy and hate speech laws that currently inhibit and restrict vital exchange and debate.

Saturday, September 26, 2009

Pojkars skolgång?

Från GenusMagazinet:

Myten om att lathet är orsaken till skolpojkars låga betyg
av redaktör GenusMagazinet

Citat:

När pojkarna lämnar grundskolan har de sämre betyg än flickorna i samtliga ämnen utom idrott. Ett fenomen som funnits under många år och som är en delförklaring till dagens stora kvinnodominans på de högre utbildningarna.

...

I OECD:s studie Pisa och i IEA:s studie Timss jämfördes åren 2000-2003 de svenska elevernas kunskaper på internationell nivå. Resultatet påvisade att svenska pojkar presterade bättre än svenska flickor i ämnen som ”naturvetenskapligt kunnande”, matematik, fysik, kemi, miljökunskap och geovetenskap. När betygen sedermera delades ut, var flickornas betyg högre än pojkarnas i matematik och de naturvetenskapliga ämnena.

Samma fenomen återfinns vid de nationella proven. Jämför man pojkar och flickor som uppnått likvärdiga resultat på de nationella proven för matematik, svenska och engelska, påvisar flertalet studier att flickorna får avsevärt högre betyg än pojkarna. Detta trots att Skolverket anser att de nationella proven ska vara ett verktyg för att garantera en likvärdig och rättvis bedömning vid betygssättningen.

Man har via en engelsk studie påvisat att en tredjedel av pojkarna fick bättre självförtroende och blev mer motiverade till att studera om de undervisades av en manlig lärare. Ändå görs mycket lite för att bryta den stora kvinnodominansen på lärarutbildningarna. Detta trots att staten och många lärosäten arbetar hårt för det motsatta, att få in fler kvinnor på de högre, mansdominerade utbildningarna.

Genuspedagogiken som är på frammarsch i skolorna bortser även den i många fall från pojkarnas behov. Ett konkret exempel är att man i många småskolor där genuspedagogiken praktiseras inte längre placerar en lugn och skötsam flicka mellan två stökiga pojkar. Däremot anses det gå bra att offra en lugn, skötsam pojke och placera denne mellan de stökiga eleverna.

Källor
Skolverket, Rapporten PISA (rapport 254, PISA)
http://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=1374

Umeå Universitet – Rapporten TIMSS 2003
http://www8.umu.se/edmeas/timss2003/publ/Sartryck_sammanfattning.pdf

IFAU – Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering
http://ifau.se/upload/pdf/se/2007/r07-22.pdf

Pojkars och flickors betyg. En statistisk undersökning av Maria Nycander
http://web.telia.com/~u18411153/NycanderSLUTVERSION_2006-11-17.pdf

Sunday, September 20, 2009

Pakistan`s Daily Times: Girls’ madrassas, May 16, 2009

From Pakistan`s Daily Times:

Girls’ madrassas expanding at a dramatic rate
Saturday, May 16, 2009

...

LAHORE: There are more than 1,900 registered madrassas for girls in Pakistan. And the female madrassas are expanding at a dramatic rate, educating almost a quarter of a million girls and providing more than half of the candidates taking the graduate-level examinations every year.

...
The boom in female madrassas has led to the funding of a project to examine their impact. An Oxford academic, Dr Masooda Bano, has received more than £400,000 from the Economic and Social Research Council to study their appeal and their students.

According to the latest statistics, nearly 236,000 girls are studying in the madrassas. The girls exceed males in academic achievement so that a greater number register for graduate examination. They also have a higher pass rate.

The madrassas charge fees. The number of unregistered madrassas could be much higher. Bano said, “Parents who send their daughters to madrassas are lower middle class. The girls who enter are aged between 16 and 20. Most say it was their choice. There is an emergence of a very conservative value system. Madrassas promote traditional roles for women and students feel confident about their position in society. You cannot associate this phenomena with poverty.”

She says the madrassas give women economic and social opportunities.

...

Friday, September 18, 2009

Global Axess: En tredje muslimsk offensiv mot Europa

Global Axess
En tredje muslimsk offensiv mot Europa
Gäst i Global Axess är Lars Hedegaard, historiker, författare, journalist och chef för det danska Trykkefrihedsselskabet.
Han har sedan 90-talet studerat islams inverkan på europeisk och västerländsk civilisation. Programmet sändes första gången den 15:e oktober 2006.

Klicka här för att se Thomas Gürs intervju med Lars Hedegaard i Axess Television med svensk text.

What's Wrong with Modern Art?

http://tinyurl.com/kosjaq


Poetics
What's Wrong with Modern Art?
Wes Callihan
Credenda/Agenda Vol. 4, No. 2

In a city plaza near you, there is a sculpture. It was commissioned by the town, and paid for with local tax money. The consensus of most passersby is that it was meant to represent a terrible automobile accident, or perhaps a meteor landing in a bumper factory.

On an trendy street close by, there is a coffee shop that hosts literary readings. Judging from the styles worn by the people going in, you guess that housewives and car salesmen do not make up the majority of the audience on a regular basis. As the crowd exits the shop after a reading, the words used to praise the evening's fare seem more appropriate to a psychoanalysis session than a poetry reading: "disturbing," or "deeply anarchic." The poem consists totally of prepositions and obscenities.

Your local university houses a student radio station. Its disc jockeys pride themselves on playing the very latest in cutting-edge music. Although it is an advertiser's nightmare, many claim to enjoy the "music"; still, many more suspect that the music was meant to represent a terrible automobile accident, or perhaps a meteor landing in a bumper factory.

What is wrong with modern art? Although the above scenarios do not represent all of modern art, they are only the extreme end of elements that are pervasive in what is known in the western world as "modern art."

In the last issue, we argued that over the past two hundred years the church has abdicated its duty of teaching the authority of the Word of God over all human endeavors, including aesthetic pursuits (visual arts, music, and literature). The result is that the church has now been forced to agree, in large measure, with the world that God has nothing to say about art beyond the requirement that it not be obviously sinful. That is, although God's people object strenuously when public displays include pornography, there is very little else they will object to on the basis of the God's revelation in Scripture. There is a great deal of truly bad art in modern society, but Christians refuse to apply biblical standards to it, having succumbed long ago to the notion that it's all really just a matter of taste.

Because of the church's abdication, the world has developed its own definitions and standards, and as a result we have the sculpture, the poetry, and the music by which so many culturally conservative Americans are offended without knowing why. In the light of the revelation of God's Word, however, the definitions and standards of modern art can be analyzed and judged.

Most current theories of art resolve themselves into the following familiar statement: "Art is self-expression." Few modern artists would deny that certain organizing principles must be adhered to in producing their art: the musician must follow rules of musical composition, the poet must use words meaningfully. Though radical artists may reject even these constraints, the very nature of the result removes them from the realm of comprehension, and thus from consideration.

However, the common element in almost all non-Christian art (and because of the degenerate condition of the church, a great deal of Christian art as well) is that the artist's primary motive in producing his work is "self-expression." The first problem with this is that the primary motive of every human in everything done should be the glory of God. Self-expression, when it is a primary motive, is self-glorification, and therefore sin. If an artist expresses himself simply because he is himself, he is an idolater.

The second problem is closely tied to the first. Apart from the regeneration of the Holy Spirit, the self is corrupt; anything it expresses is antagonistic to God. Insofar as the non-Christian artist's expressions truly reflect his self they are without worth. I say "insofar as they truly express his self" because no artist will be able to eliminate all reflections of God, since as a creature in God's world, he must use and reflect that world. To the extent that God's work shows in the artist's, it has value. It is also true that the Christian may be reminded by the work of what is to live apart from grace.

In the scenarios at the beginning of this essay, self-expression meant chaos. The sculpture of twisted steel, the deranged poetry, and the jarring music are chaotic because rejecting God results in chaos. Yet some order can be found in the sculpture's ability to reflect light, or in the meaning that words still retain in the poem. But these elements of order are only there because the artist could not keep them out, could not help but spend (or more precisely steal) the capital of God's reality.

Now it is true that in the history of man, non-Christians have created very beautiful works of art, literature, and music. But in all those ages, the artist recognized absolutes of some kind upon which principles of beauty could be founded, or they had been trained under those principles and, though theoretically rejecting them, used them to practice their art. This was the case with the Romantics in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. These men believed that all the organizing structures of society should be thrown off. So why did they write (for the most part) such beautiful poetry? In spite of their theories, they had a great deal of social, artistic, and moral capital to spend, and (inconsistently) they spent it. The beauty of their poetry consisted largely in their highly artistic use of the very techniques and structures that they railed so vehemently against.

Enough time has elapsed now so that very little capital remains. The idea of absolutes, something outside of man, has been used up; all that can replace it is man himself and what is in him. This leaves nothing to bind together the multitude of particulars called "man," no higher appeal than individual "taste" in judging beauty, and nothing higher than man to glorify.

Thursday, September 17, 2009

Islam Lives by the Sword

From Israel National News:

Islam Lives by the Sword
by Rabbi Eliezer Melamed

Our enemy's motivation must be understood.

War With the Arabs
The path ahead of us is not simple. We are in a state of war with the vast majority of Arab countries, with Islamic believers throughout the world supporting them. We are talking about tens of millions of enemies who are ready to
It is easy to be enticed by the false prophets who promise peace.
go to war against us at any moment, and hundreds of millions more who voice support for it.

In such a situation, it is easy to be enticed by the false prophets who promise peace. However, one who examines the circumstances with open eyes will understand that withdrawal and compromise will not bring an end to the Arabs' war against us; on the contrary, it will only increase it. In order to understand this, the source of our enemy's motivation must be understood.

Islam - A Religion of War
It is no coincidence that the Arabs have succeeded in imposing the Islamic religion on many nations, to the point where presently there are approximately 1,400,000,000 people who are believers. The genetic code of Islam is directed towards a steadfast war to impose the religion of Mohammad on the entire world by means of the sword. And to achieve this goal, everything is legitimate. If they need to lie, they will lie. If they need to kill, they will kill - hundreds of thousands or even millions. It was not the enchanting beauty of the Islamic religion which drew so many nations to accept it upon themselves, but rather the clear threat of death.

All nations reached their achievements through wars and victories; however, in Islam, unlike other cultures, the principle of compromise is unacceptable, especially a compromise over land. Therefore, even when the Muslims lack the power to defeat their enemy, they are not willing to accept compromise. If they make a cease-fire (tahadeya in Arabic), in the view of Islam, it is only a recess which must be utilized to prepare for the continuation of the war. If possible, in the meantime, they will weaken their opponent with terrorist attacks and ransacking. If not, at the very least they will attempt to anesthetize him with lies, until they are able to attack once again and defeat him.

This fundamental principle causes the Muslims never to lay down their sword; to always be ready for the continuation of the war. This is how the Muslims succeeded to impose their religion on many nations, who in turn, according to this code, continued to conquer additional territory.

Territory Previously Conquered by Islam
According to the Muslim way of thinking, the world is divided into two areas: Dar al-Islam is the area already conquered by Islam. Dar al-Harb is the area of war, which the Arabs are commanded to conquer until it is turned into Muslim territory. After a certain territory has been conquered by Islam, it is declared as holy Muslim territory, which is forbidden to be relinquished under any circumstances.

Even if this territory is conquered by another nation for hundreds of years, according to Muslim law it is still considered holy land which must be returned to Muslim control. Accordingly, Muslims execute terrorist attacks in Spain and large parts of India, because the Islam which conquered them in the past, demands them in return now. And if unable to conquer them, Muslims will at least carry out terrorist attacks, so that normal life cannot be conducted there until they are returned to Islamic rule.

The Land of Israel: War Zone
The State of Israel constitutes a double problem from their perspective, for it was established on territory that was conquered by Islam since its foundation (except for a period of approximately 100 years when it was ruled by the Crusaders); and not only this, but the land of Israel is located in the heart of Muslim territory. Therefore, as far as they are concerned, this is the first place they must conquer - either by sword or by guile.

Some Muslims are more religious, others less; however, the central foundation which strives to conquer and rule remains alive to a great extent amongst all of them.

The present debate between the moderates and the extremists is over the question of whether it is necessary to implement agreements with the State of Israel in order to cause its collapse, or to crush it through extended guerilla warfare. Concerning the goal itself - the dismantling of the State of Israel and the conquering of the entire Land of Israel - none of them concede.

Silence From Middle East Experts
There are numerous university departments which deal with the study of Islam and Arabic nations. One could ask: Why don't these experts warn the Western governments about the danger of awakening Islam?

The problem is that today's politically correct language does not allow the Muslim threat to be discussed seriously. All people are supposed to be equal without discrepancies of religion, race or sex; how can one then claim that the Muslim culture presently produces the most serious threat to world peace? Therefore, even one who analyzes the subject correctly is not able to express his thoughts properly within the framework of an accepted public forum. Thus, the danger continues to grow without any experts warning Israel and the world about it.

By the way, there are actually a number of Muslims who, in their wish to highlight the positive sides of the Islamic culture, are worried about the rise of the negative aspects. They presently are the only ones cautioning about the dangers of Islam, but nobody listens to them.

How to Deal With the Threat
The only way to exempt a Muslim from going to war is to create a situation where he is totally compelled - without the ability or chance to succeed. Then, he will wait for years or generations, and when the time is right, return to war. Perhaps, in the meantime, those Muslims will repent and correct their outlook, or instead, the time will come for this religion to disappear from the face of the Earth, as other religions have in the past.

However, when we project doubts in relation to our rights to the land and our readiness to fight for it, we are encouraging them to attack us. Additionally, our international status does not improve, just as it did not improve as a result of the woeful Oslo Accords. The more we agree to compromise, the more people throughout the world will support the demand to "return" to the Arabs "all their rights" - in other words, to put an end to our existence.

That is what happened as a result of the Bar-Ilan speech. The prime minister and his supporters were sure that, in the merit of his capitulation and his agreement to a demilitarized "Palestinian State", international pressure concerning the the settlements would be removed. Lo and behold, the reality is the exact opposite - any
Any compromise from our side results in additional demands.
compromise from our side results in additional demands.

The Settlements: Our Guarantee
Therefore, the settlements, which come in the name of God's promise to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, are the most important thing for Israel's security. Our enemies know that they have no chance to defeat Israel in a face-to-face war, but they are sure that they can destroy Israel through terror and guerilla warfare. It is only the settlers, with their firmness and faith, who stand in their way. As long as the settlers are not ready to compromise on anything, and continue to hold tight to the land, multiply, get stronger and stand firm, the Muslims won't be able to defeat Israel.

Fortunate are those who assist these courageous people, helping to expand the settlements, for this is the foundation of the security and salvation of Israel: "Be of good courage, and let us be strong for our people, and for the cities of our God."

Tammuz 23, 5769 / 15 July 09

Friday, September 11, 2009

Mehdi Ghezali och islam

Granska Kubasvenskens gamla lögner
Publicerad: 2009-09-10, Uppdaterad: 2009-09-11
av Anders Carlgren
Newsmill

Citat:

Efter torsdagskvällens avslöjande i SVT/Rapport att den så kallade Kubasvensken, Mehdi Ghezali, är en av de tolv utländska medborgare som gripits i Pakistan, misstänkta för samröre med al Qaida, finns det all anledning att damma av händelserna under sommaren 2004 då Ghezali släpptes från det amerikanska fånglägret Guantánama på Kuba och återvände till Sverige. Det skriver journalisten Anders Carlgren.

Klicka här för att läsa texten.

Thursday, September 10, 2009

Modern Day Trojan Horse: The Islamic Doctrine of Immigration

Modern Day Trojan Horse: The Islamic Doctrine of Immigration
by Sam Solomon and Elias Al Maqdisi
Publisher: Advancing Native Missions
2009

“I hope that every person in the Western world reads it, including the sleeping political elite. This book should bring about a much needed awakening.”

- Geert Wilders MP
Chairman Party for Freedom (PVV)

“Sam Solomon and E Al Maqdisi have provided the general Western public a valuable service in publishing this book.”

- Rev Dr Patrick Sookhdeo
Director of the Institute for the Study of Islam and Christianity

Here is the website of the book.

From the website:

The Islamic Doctrine of Immigration
Accepting Freedom or Imposing Islam?
The first fundamental principle for the creation
of a successfully visible Islamic society
is to be separate and distinct…
The meaning of Al-Hijra is ‘to immigrate’, and the Islamic calendar starts with that date, i.e., the date Muhammad ‘immigrated’ from Mecca to Medina, for which he had planned carefully and meticulously laying down the groundwork for the Islamic State, soon to grow after his death into a formidable empire ruled by the laws and regulations laid out by him, called the Shariah. Today as we see staggering numbers of immigrants from Muslim countries in Europe and in the Americas, we have to ask the questions as in the title of this book, “Are these communities wanting to join the free societies? Or, are they extending the ‘Abode of Islam’ as per the ‘Doctrine of Immigration’ which was modeled by Muhammad in the initial Hijra?”

Free immigration by various groups to Western Europe and the Americas has long been a welcome part of national growth, as immigrants were searching primarily for opportunities for a better life and were quick to identify with their host nations and so to contribute their talents to the national good. So why does this book focus on the subject of ‘Islamic Immigration?’ Why should this be an issue at all? After all, aren’t the Muslim immigrants just like any other immigrants from China, the Indian subcontinent or Africa? After all, these other immigrants try to preserve their ethnic identity and even form lobby groups to fend for their rights and special requirements. The authors of this book argue that ‘Islamic Immigration’ (Al-Hijra, in Arabic) is tied organically and inseparably to a form of immigration which is an integral part of the Islamic call (da’wa) to establish an Islamic state or political power base and to spread Islam.

The authors provide the painstaking detail of how the Hijra was not a sudden desperate attempt by Muhammad and his followers to flee Mecca for a better life in Medina. In fact it was a methodically planned event whereby Muhammad used his shrewd political manoeuvring and leadership skills to transform every development into an advantage without losing his focus on the final goal. In the process he unified the pagan Arabs as Muslims and placed the Jewish and Christian Arabs in a subservient condition. Prior to becoming subservient they were masters in their own towns and oases. More importantly, Muhammad developed a ‘model’ to be emulated by generations to come — for 1400 years and still counting! This model is called the ‘Doctrine of Immigration,’ and it provides the mechanisms and processes to be followed by dedicated and pious Muslims to transform the world into the abode of Islam.

If this is the case, as demonstrated by one example after the other, then does the image of a ‘Trojan Horse’ apply? In Greek history, the Trojan horse was a fake ‘gift’ by the Trojans as they made the appearance of lifting their siege on Troy. But that allowed the toughest Trojan fighters to hide inside that horse, only to take on the fully drunk and sleepy enemy by surprise and inside the walls of their city. Is Islamic immigration then a deceptive effort to take over Western societies while they are unaware of what is going on? The authors point to the gradual attempts to spread Islamic influence in small steps, but with the aim of making Islamic Shariah laws fully functional.

Modern Islamic intellectuals and planners have been actively working on applying the Doctrine of Immigration to the Muslim societies in Europe, North America, and Latin America. The advocated mechanisms and tools are not mere ‘parallels’ of what Muhammad did in Medina some 1400 years ago, but actually are precise imitations and applications of what he did and developed, as you will see in this book.

Sam Solomon, a convert to Christianity and an expert on Islam, is a senior lecturer and research coordinator, a human rights activist and an advisor to British as well as European parliamentarians. Sam has authored a number of thought-provoking books and numerous articles on Christian Muslim relations.

E Al Maqdisi is a prolific writer and debater, an author of some 15 books, and a regular contributor to many Internet sites on this complex subject of Islam and its teachings.

Wednesday, September 09, 2009

Re-post: The Islamic Doctrine of Migration: Al Hijrah

From the American Thinker:

August 16, 2009
The Hijra
By Janet Levy
Modern Day Trojan Horse: The Islamic Doctrine of Immigration
By Sam Solomon and Elias Al Maqdisi
ANM Publishers, 2009
139 pp., $14.95

Within the past few decades, mosques have increasingly dotted the landscapes of American and European cities and towns, with mega mosques often overshadowing adjacent, centuries-old churches in predominantly Christian regions. Islamic schools or academies and a host of Muslim organizations have become omnipresent across the West.

Meanwhile, Americans and Europeans have made countless accommodations to Muslim demands. They have included footbaths; high-decibel, five-times-daily calls to prayer; segregated male-female gym and swimming pool hours; halal food; workplace dispensations for handling pork products and for female head and face coverings; and special, public prayer rooms. Also, shari'ah-compliant financial transactions, the expunging of offensive likenesses of Mohammed or imagined depictions of Arabic characters that connote "Allah," official swearings-in on Korans in place of customary Bibles, the neutralizing of official descriptive language about Islamists and the jihad, the revision of so-called offensive content in movies and television programs, the removal of representations of pigs from the public sphere, and many other acculturations to Muslim entreaties have all been made in the service of respecting Muslim religious beliefs and practices.

To those in Western democracies, these accommodating actions appear, on the surface, to be little more than harmless civil gestures, respecting the needs of a growing religion in their midst and welcoming a new addition to their proud, multicultural tradition. Many Westerners pat themselves on the back for their liberal bent, their tolerance and their open-mindedness.

Little do they realize that this strategic pattern of demands is part of an insidious, 1,400-year-old proscription for Muslims that originates in the Koran and the Sunnah, the deeds of Mohammed. It is the Hijra or doctrine of immigration. Modeled by Mohammed's migration from Mecca to Medina, this immigration is not to a romanticized melting pot wherein newcomers gratefully search for opportunities for a better life in liberty and freely offer their talents and loyalty to benefit their new homeland. This is immigration for Islamic expansionism employing ethnic separatism to gain special status and privileges within the host country. Hijra is immigration designed to subvert and subdue non-Muslim societies and pave the way for eventual, total Islamization.

In their compelling book, "Modern Day Trojan Horse: The Islamic Doctrine of Immigration," authors Sam Solomon, a former professor of shari'ah law and convert to Christianity, and Elias Al Maqdisi, an expert on Islamic teachings, explain the migration of Muslims to the Dar-al-Harb, the "land of war," as a religious edict with a basis in Islamic doctrine. They delineate the step-by-step process of this 1,400-year-old strategy of conquest. It is a transitional strategy which they characterize as the most important step in spreading Islam and preparing for jihad. From their carefully delineated treatise on Hijra, it is clear that migration in concert with military conquest comprise the bookends of Islamic expansionism.

Solomon and Al Maqdisi review the phases of the Hijra and its juristic or legal basis in Islamic doctrine. Under the cover of taquiya or deception, the step-by-step methodology of the migration process is designed to subdue, then, subjugate the host culture, culminating in implementation of shari'ah law.

The beginning phase of Islamization usually includes activities pivotal to building a physical presence. It consists of public calls to prayer; founding of schools, libraries and research centers; and the teaching of Arabic -- actions that appear to be reasonable and respectable infrastructure requirements necessary to support the presence of a faith. At this point in the Hijra, it is permissible for Muslims to engage in haram, or forbidden actions, out of necessity to establish and empower the umma or Muslim community. Koranic rules such as the prohibition against friendships with infidels are suspended while the objectives of future Islamization are systematically put into place. In its initial phase, the Hijra passes scrutiny by the West whose citizens erroneously view the migration as mainly economic -- a pilgrimage for a better life.

Solomon and Maqdisi examine the comprehensive strategy that begins with the establishment of the umma or Muslim community. The mosque becomes the locus of power, a strategic base and the center of all activities. They explain how in this embryonic phase, a top priority is the scouting for new arrivals to expand and empower the existing Muslim community. Muslim leaders offer solicitous assistance and helpful suggestions for schools, housing, mosque worship, halal markets and other services to ingratiate themselves with new arrivals and bring them into the local Muslim community. Agents of local mosques, ever alert for new immigrants and potential converts, engage in subtle forms of indoctrination and police local Muslims.

This first step of establishing the mosque as the center of local Islamic life and activities is mistakenly viewed by non-Muslims as merely the benign construction of houses of worship. Its true goal escapes notice, that of firmly establishing a purposeful non-integrated Muslim identity to advance the goal of Islamization.

Once the consolidation of the Muslim community occurs under the radar, the purposeful fight for special status and shari'ah follows. As dictated by the Koran and Sunnah, segregation from non-Muslims is a natural outcome of the advancement of the Hijra.

Visible changes begin to be apparent as the Muslim population achieves more of a critical mass. Over time, the dress code, often beginning with a hijab in segregated enclaves and moving toward the complete covering of a neqab in the public sphere, separates Muslim women from men and from non-Muslim women. Eventually, as the host population becomes familiarized with what they believe to be the requirements of religious piety, demands are made for segregation at public facilities, in the workplace and at schools and universities. Requests for halal food, shari'ah-compliant financial transactions and the addition of Muslim holidays to public calendars further elevate the Muslim community with a special status making them separate and distinct.

All demands are initially presented as benign attempts to accommodate the religious requirements of devout Muslims. Any actions to suppress them are decried as religious discrimination. In the United States, requests for separate swimming and gym hours for Muslim men and women, demands for identification photos for licenses for women wearing hijabs and refusals to handle pork products or don immodest dress in the workplace have appeared. At this point, representatives of the Muslim community are often working cooperatively with the host government to bring about change. As Solomon and Maqdisi explain, the idea is to get the host society accustomed to Muslim buildings, customs, holidays, dress and food. Newcomers are encouraged by Muslim leadership to become citizens, vote and run for political office to increase the umma's influence.

At the university level, students are indoctrinated to become advocates for Islam, engage in interfaith activities and da'wa or proselytization and train for jihad. Non-Muslims professors are solicited through zakat or payments to present courses favorable to Islam and write and speak publicly to promote Islam. The bequeathal by Saudi Prince Al-waleed bin Talal of $20 million dollars for Islamic study centers at Harvard and Georgetown universities, respectively, was a gesture to insure the promulgation of positive research, publications and presentations toward Islam.

In "Modern Day Trojan Horse," Solomon and Maqdisi point out that as Muslims gain power and mass in the host country, consolidation of identity occurs, as well as strengthening of their infrastructure of mosques, schools, clubs, organizations and media. The doctrine of taquiya is firmly in place as Muslims hide behind the dictates of their religious devotion and seek cultural changes in the land of the non-Muslim or kuffar. At this more advanced stage, attempts are made to silence opponents and curry favor. The judicious use of zakat elicits favorable views of Muslims and Islam from politicians, representatives from the media and other organizations. For example, within the last couple of years in the United States, the words, "jihad" and "Islamofascism," have been expunged from the lexicon of government officials and the words, "Islamic" and "terrorism," are rarely paired. In Europe, which is further advanced in this process, a dangerous turn materialized with the murder of filmmaker ,Theo Van Gogh, who produced a film on the subjugation of women in Islam, and with death threats against Dutch parliamentarian Geert Wilder for his outspoken criticism of Islam.

As Islamization of the host culture proceeds apace, preparations begin for learning the skills necessary for jihad. Young jihadists may travel to their countries of origin for further indoctrination and terrorist training. This development has been noted within Somali Muslim communities in Minnesota and Tennessee. Young Muslims have disappeared to Somalia to rendezvous with Al Shabaab, a terrorist group linked to Al Qaeda.

As the resident Muslim community becomes more established and begins to wield considerable power in the political arena, pressure is brought to bear on politicians to permit shari'ah law courts in exchange for Muslim votes. This is very much evident in Britain where parallel systems of legal jurisprudence currently coexist. Muslim inhabitants of the host country are pressured to follow shari'ah law in lieu of the prevailing legal system. Several recent legal decisions by non-Muslim judges in Europe have referenced shari'ah law as a standard for verdicts concerning Muslims.

As the intensity of the hijra advances, the appearance of open ghettos or Muslim-only regions occurs. These are areas where non-Muslims are essentially prohibited and where, if they enter, they actually may be physically threatened. Such no-go zones, where even non-Muslim community workers are unwelcome, exist throughout Europe today. Remarkably, Muslim movements are never restricted; they venture freely anywhere in the host country.

As Solomon and Maqdisi point out, the Hijra is a comprehensive and direct political attempt to undermine the culture and values of the host country and replace them with Islam and shari'ah. It is an insidious migration seeking transformation of the culture, behaviors, customs, rules and laws of a host society to spread Islam and establish an Islamic state. The stages of the Hijra are very much evident in varying degrees in all Western societies today. Ironically, our open democratic societies with constitutionally mandated freedoms of speech, religion and assembly have facilitated this march toward the very demise of our way of life.

"Modern Day Trojan Horse" should be required reading for all citizens of Western democracies who urgently need to understand the Hijra and the threat it represents. The book sounds the alarm for the cautious evaluation of what may appear to be innocent religious practice in our midst but has sinister motives to transform our societies forever.

Muslim Dr. Yusouf Al-Qaradhawi: "We are a nation that does not work"



Tuesday, September 08, 2009

The Stealth Jihad of Hijra

From The Iconoclast:

Sunday, 16 August 2009
The Stealth Jihad of Hijra- Muslim Immigration- Exposed
by Jerry Gordon

Janet Levy has a review, “The Hijra,” in the American Thinker of a new book, Modern Day Trojan Horse: The Islamic Doctrine of Immigration by colleagues of Geert Wilders, Sam Solomon and Elias Al Maqdisi.

As Levy points out the thesis of the Solomon Al Magdisi slim volume is that Hijra-the Mecca to Medina migration of Mohammed the origin myth of Islam in the Quran - is all about the spread of Islamization and Western accommodation. Major Wahhabi-backed Mosques throughout America are named after the Hijra such the Dar al-Hijra in Falls Church, Virginia with an American-born Imam who had fled the US after engaging in recruiting Jihadis for Al Qaeda. Note this from a Washington Post 2008 report:

Even before the 2001 terrorist attacks, American-born imam Anwar al-Aulaqi drew the attention of federal authorities because of his possible connections to al-Qaeda. Their interest grew after 9/11, when it turned out that three of the hijackers had spent time at his mosques in California and Falls Church, but he was allowed to leave the country in 2002.

"There is good reason to believe Anwar Aulaqi has been involved in very serious terrorist activities since leaving the United States, including plotting attacks against America and our allies," said a U.S. counterterrorism official who spoke on the condition of anonymity.

Aulaqi, 36, was the spiritual leader in 2001 and 2002 of the Dar al-Hijrah mosque in Falls Church, one of the largest in the country. In a taped interview posted this New Year's Eve on a British Web site, Aulaqi said that while in prison in Yemen, he had undergone multiple interrogations by the FBI that included questions about his dealings with the Sept. 11 hijackers.
"I don't know if I was held because of that, or because of the other issues they presented," Aulaqi said without elaborating. He said he would like to travel outside Yemen but would not do so "until the U.S. drops whatever unknown charges it has against me." Aulaqi did not respond to requests for an interview.

The accommodation of Islam by feckless Americans as Levy chronicled in her review has covered a number of ‘engagements” from demands for foot baths, time off for prayer observances for Ramadan, using tax-payer funds for Charter schools such the Tarek ibn Zayed Academy in Minnesota organized by Muslim Brotherhood front, Muslim American Society in violation of the Construction Clause of The First Amendment, and the insinuation of Shariah finance into our banking system. As a participant in the NER Nashville Symposium, “Understanding Jihad in Europe, Israel and America,” Levy, was exposed to the emergence of home grown young American Somali Jihadis recruited by radical Imams, some of whom have been murdered by Somali al Qaeda affiliate Al Shabaab. The recent protests by Coloradans Against Shariah Task Force (CAST) against Somali- imposed observances of Ramadan starting on August 21st at the JBS Swift meat packing plant in Greeley, Colorado are exemplary of stealth jihad under the guise of Hjira.

Solomon and Al Madisi have authenticity given their peculiar positions as experts in Sharia and Muslim apostates, outline the importance of Hijra. Levy notes how the West is euchred via Hijra:

In their compelling book, "Modern Day Trojan Horse: The Islamic Doctrine of Immigration," authors Sam Solomon, a former professor of shariah law and convert to Christianity, and Elias Al Maqdisi, an expert on Islamic teachings, explain the migration of Muslims to the Dar-al-Harb, the "land of war," as a religious edict with a basis in Islamic doctrine. They delineate the step-by-step process of this 1,400-year-old strategy of conquest. It is a transitional strategy which they characterize as the most important step in spreading Islam and preparing for jihad. From their carefully delineated treatise on Hijra, it is clear that migration in concert with military conquest comprise the bookends of Islamic expansionism.

Solomon and Al Maqdisi review the phases of the Hijra and its juristic or legal basis in Islamic doctrine. Under the cover of taqiyya or deception, the step-by-step methodology of the migration process is designed to subdue, then, subjugate the host culture, culminating in implementation of shariah law.

The beginning phase of Islamization usually includes activities pivotal to building a physical presence. It consists of public calls to prayer; founding of schools, libraries and research centers; and the teaching of Arabic -- actions that appear to be reasonable and respectable infrastructure requirements necessary to support the presence of a faith. At this point in the Hijra, it is permissible for Muslims to engage in haram, or forbidden actions, out of necessity to establish and empower the umma or Muslim community. Koranic rules such as the prohibition against friendships with infidels are suspended while the objectives of future Islamization are systematically put into place. In its initial phase, the Hijra passes scrutiny by the West whose citizens erroneously view the migration as mainly economic -- a pilgrimage for a better life.
That ‘better life’ migration or Hijra by Muslim here in America is simply setting the stage for the enablers of the world wide Caliphate, the Muslim Brotherhood fronts, identified in the federal Holy Land Foundation trial as unindicted co-conspirators, to achieve their objective of Sharia supplanting our Constitution. As one CAST protest sign read: "Shariah law is treason."

Saturday, September 05, 2009

Re-post: Glenn Sack`s Source Page

http://www.glennsacks.com/blog/?page_id=1000

#1: “Two‑thirds or more of all divorces involving couples with children are initiated by mothers, not fathers.”

Source: Margaret F. Brinig and Douglas A. Allen, "'These Boots Are Made For Walking": Why Most Divorce Filers Are Women" American Law and Economics Review 2‑1 (2000): 126‑169.

Source: John Tierney, "A New Look at the Realities of Divorce," New York Times, July 11, 2000.

Source: Sanford Braver, Marnie Whitley, and Christine Ng, "Who Divorced Whom? Methodological and Theoretical Issues," Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 20, 1993, p. 1.

Source: Cathy Young, "The Sadness of the American Father," The American Spectator, June 2000. See http://fact.on.ca/news/news0006/as000601.htm.


#2: “A randomized study of 46,000 divorce cases published in the American Law and Economics Review found that in only 6% of cases women claimed to be divorcing cruel or abusive husbands, and that adultery was cited by women as a cause of divorce only slightly more than by men. Surveys of divorced couples show that the reasons for their divorces are generally a lack of closeness or of "not feeling loved and appreciated."

Source: Margaret F. Brinig and Douglas A. Allen, “These Boots Are Made For Walking": Why Most Divorce Filers Are Women" American Law and Economics Review 2-1 (2000): 126-169.

Source: John Tierney, "A New Look at the Realities of Divorce," New York Times, July 11, 2000.

Source: Beuhler, "Whose Decision Was It?" Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, pp 587 - 595, 1987.

Source: Cathy Young, "The Sadness of the American Father," The American Spectator, June 2000. See http://fact.on.ca/news/news0006/as000601.htm.


#3: “Studies show that the overwhelming majority of steadily employed divorced fathers pay their child support. While there are a few well‑heeled divorced dads who stiff their children, most non‑paying dads are either poor, unemployed, disabled, or incarcerated. According to a US Government Accounting Office report, two‑thirds of those fathers who do not pay their child support fail to do so because they are financially unable to do so.”

Source: Judi Bartfield and Daniel R. Meyer: "Are There Really Deadbeat Dads? The Relationship Between Ability to Pay, Enforcement, and Compliance in Nonmarital Child Support Cases," Social Service Review 68, 1994, pp. 219‑235.

Source: "Deadbeat Dad Image A Myth, Study Finds," New York Times, May 5, 1999. See: http://sharedparent.freeyellow.com/ddiamsf.pdf. Look for "Divorced moms reported."

Source: Cathy Young, Ceasefire!: Why Women and Men Must Join Forces to Achieve True Equality, The Free Press, 1999, pp. 206‑207.

Source: Kathleen Parker, "Deadbeat dads more myth than reality," The Orlando Sentinel, Jan 24 1999. See: http://www.dadi.org/kpdbeat2.htm. Look for "Census Bureau."


#4: “There are almost as many unfaithful wives as there are unfaithful husbands. Research generally estimates that for every five unfaithful husbands, there are four unfaithful wives.”

Source: Maggie Scarf, “Intimate Partners: An examination of the underlying architecture of love relationships—the influence of the past, the causes of infidelity, and the systems that couples create,” The Atlantic Monthly, November 1986. The article can be viewed here. Look for “Emotional Triangles: Infidelity.”

Source: John Przybys, “Unfaithfully Yours: Men, women have differing ideas about fidelity,” Las Vegas Review‑Journal, March 29, 1998. The article can be found here. Look for “Paul Wulkan.”

Source: Jennifer P. Schneider, Richard R. Irons, and M. Deborah Corley, “Disclosure of Extramarital Sexual Activities by Sexually Exploitative Professionals and Other Persons with Addictive or Compulsive Sexual Disorders,” Journal of Sex Education and Therapy 24:277‑287, 1999. The article can be found here. Search in the text for the word “infidelity.”


#5: “Domestic violence research overwhelmingly shows that women are just as likely as men to initiate and engage in domestic violence, and that only a small percentage of women's domestic violence is committed in self‑defense. Studies show that women often compensate for their smaller size by their significantly greater use of weapons and the element of surprise.”

Source: Richard J. Gelles, Ph.D., “The Missing Persons of Domestic Violence: Male Victims,” The Women’s Quarterly, Fall, 1999. See Gelles.

Source: References Examining Assaults by Women on Their Spouses or Male Partners: An Annotated Bibliography by Martin S. Fiebert, Department of Psychology, California State University, Long Beach. See http://www.csulb.edu/~mfiebert/assault.htm.

Source: Patricia Pearson, When She Was Bad: Violent Women & the Myth of Innocence, Penguin Books, 1998, pp. 119‑123.

Source: David Fontes, “Violent Touch: Breaking Through the Stereotype,” David L. Fontes, Psy.D., CEAP See http://www.safe4all.org/essays/vtbreak.pdf.

Source: Cathy Young, Ceasefire!: Why Women and Men Must Join Forces to Achieve True Equality, The Free Press, 1999, pp. 91‑96.


#6: “Official Department of Justice statistics show that men commit 70% of all murder of intimates. However, when other factors are accounted for, including unsolved murders, poisonings mistakenly classified as heart attacks, and contract killings classified as "multiple offender killings," women have been shown to be at least as likely as men to murder their current or former spouses or intimates.”

Source: Dershowitz, Alan M. 1994. The Abuse Excuse: And Other Cop‑outs, Sob Stories and Evasions of Responsibility. Boston: Little Brown, pp. 311‑313. See the pages "Wives Also Kill Husbands‑‑Quite Often" at http://www.uiowa.edu/~030116/158/articles/dershowitz3.htm.

Source: 1994‑95 U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics Publications Catalog, publication #. NCJ 43498, “Murder in Families.”

Source: Warren Farrell, Women Can't Hear What Men Don't Say, Penguin Putnam Inc, 1999, pp 150‑151.

Source: This is also explained in detail in my column "Let's not 'Learn' the Same Lessons From Blake That We Learned From OJ" which can be found at http://www.glennsacks.com/lets_not_learn.htm.


#7: Most child abuse and parental murder of children is committed by mothers, not fathers.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Child Maltreatment 1997: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (Washington DC, :GPO, 1999). See: http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/ncands97/s7.htm. Child abuse perpetrators are 62.3% female. Child fatality perpetrators are 62.8% female. The mother/father ratio is actually greater than this, because many of the male abusers counted are not the biological fathers but instead step‑fathers, boyfriends, etc.

Source on murders of children by single parents: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, Third National Incidence Study Of Child Abuse and Neglect: Final Report Appendices (Washington D.C., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1997, pp. A‑63‑A‑64. The estimated total is 264 parental murders of children committed by single custodial mothers and 11 by single custodial fathers. There are roughly five times as many single custodial mothers as single custodial fathers.

Source: Warren Farrell, Father and Child Reunion: How to Bring the Dads We Need to the Children We Love, Penguin Putnam Inc, 2001, pp 75-77.


#8: Access and Visitation Denial Three-quarters of divorced fathers surveyed maintain that their ex-spouses have substantially interfered with their visitation rights.

Source: Joyce A. Arditti, "Factors Related to Custody, Visitation, and Child Support for Divorced Fathers: An Exploratory Analysis," Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 17, 1992, pp. 34, 39.

A study of children of divorce found that 42% of children who lived solely with their mother reported that their mother tried to prevent them from seeing their fathers after the divorce. However, only 16% of children who lived solely with their father reported similar obstruction.

Source: Glynnis Walker, Solomon's Children: Exploding the Myths of Divorce (New York: Arbor House, 1986), p. 83

Source: Cathy Young, Ceasefire!: Why Women and Men Must Join Forces to Achieve True Equality, The Free Press, 1999, p. 209.

In another study, 40% of divorced mothers admitted that they had interfered with their ex-husband's access or visitation, and that their motives were punitive in nature and not due to safety considerations.

Source: p. 449, col. II, lines 3-6, (citing Fulton) "Frequency of visitation by Divorced Fathers; Differences in Reports by Fathers and Mothers," Sanford Braver et al, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1991.

Source: J.A. Fulton, "Parental Reports of Children’s Post-Divorce Adjustment,” Journal of Social Issues 35, 1979, pp. 126-139.

Source: Cathy Young, Ceasefire!: Why Women and Men Must Join Forces to Achieve True Equality, The Free Press, 1999, p. 209.


#9: Prosecutions of fathers who violate child support mandates are common, whereas prosecutions of mothers who violate visitation orders are rare.

Source: Neil Chethik, “Law Backs the Right to Parental Visits,” Detroit Free Press, May 28, 1995, p.2J.

Source: Cathy Young, Ceasefire!: Why Women and Men Must Join Forces to Achieve True Equality, The Free Press, 1999, page 209.


#10: The vast majority of accusations of child sexual abuse made during custody battles are false, unfounded or unsubstantiated. Source: Douglas J. Besharov and Lisa A. Laumann, "Child Abuse Reporting,” Social Science and Modern Society, Vol. 33, May/June, 1996, p. 42.

Source: Blush, Gordon & Ross, Karol, 1986, The SAID Syndrome. Sterling Heights, MI: Family and Conciliation Courts Review.


#11: Nationwide divorced fathers are ten times as likely to commit suicide as divorced mothers, and more than twice as likely to commit suicide as married fathers.

Source for divorced fathers vs. married fathers: Augustine J. Kposowa, Ph.D., "Marital Status and Suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study," Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, March, 2000, Volume 54, No. 4, pages 254‑261 See http://wizard.ucr.edu/~akposowa/Status.pdf. Search for "divorced men."

Source for "10 times as likely" is Warren Farrell, Father and Child Reunion: How to Bring the Dads We Need to the Children We Love, Penguin Putnam Inc, 2001, pg. 174 & 279.


#12: The rates of juvenile crime, teen pregnancy, teen drug abuse, and school dropouts are tightly correlated with fatherlessness, often more so than with any other socioeconomic factor.

Source: The largest predictor of juvenile crime is the presence of a father is from, among others, “Douglas A. Smith and G. Roger Jajoura, “Social Structure and Criminal Victimization,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 25, Number 1, February 1988, pages 27-52. In this study children of poor and wealthy families had equal juvenile crime rates if there was a father in the home.

Source: The largest predictor of drug use is from, among others, Robert H. Coombs and John Landsverk, “Parenting Styles and Substance Abuse During Childhood and Adolescence,” Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 50, May 1988, p. 479, Table 4. The study considered various factors, including race, social class, gender, etc., and father presence was five times more important than any other factor.

Source: The teenage pregnancy statistic is from, among others, Frank F Furstenberg, Jr. and Kathleen Mullan Harris, “When and Why Fathers Matter: Impact of Father Involvement on the Children of Adolescent Mothers.”

Source: Father presence and education is discussed in Warren Farrell, Father and Child Reunion: How to Bring the Dads We Need to the Children We Love, Penguin Putnam Inc, 2001, pp 31-34. The presence of a father in a child’s life has more impact on a child’s educational achievement, beginning, in early elementary school, than race, social class, gender, etc.


#13: Children are 88% more likely to be seriously injured from abuse or neglect by their mothers than by their fathers.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Child Maltreatment 1997: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (Washington DC, :GPO, 1999). It is discussed in Father and Child Reunion by Warren Farrell, page 76.


#14: “Prosecutions of fathers who violate child support mandates are common, whereas prosecutions of mothers who violate visitation orders are rare.”

Source: Neil Chethik, “Law Backs the Right to Parental Visits,” Detroit Free Press, May 28, 1995, p.2J.

Source: Cathy Young, Ceasefire!: Why Women and Men Must Join Forces to Achieve True Equality, The Free Press, 1999, page 209.


#15: “Fathers have a much better record of paying court-ordered child support than mothers do.”

Source: John Siegmund, “Preliminary Analysis of the Database of the DC Office of Paternity and Child Support Enforcement” compiled for the Children's Rights Council, November 9, 1999.


#16: “The government spends $340 on enforcing child support for every $1 it spends on enforcing visitation rights.”

Source: The actual numbers are $3.4 billion on child support enforcement and $10 million on visitation enforcement. The $3.4 billion figure comes from “Child Support Enforcement is Working Better than We Think” by Elain Sorensen and Ariel Halpern, The Urban Institute, Series A, No 31-A, March 1999, page 4.

The $10 million figure comes from The Department of Health and Human Services, “93.597 Grants to States for Access and Visitation Programs.” (http://www.cfda.gov/static/93597.asp)

Source: Warren Farrell, Father and Child Reunion: How to Bring the Dads We Need to the Children We Love, Penguin Putnam Inc, 2001, pp 182-183.


#17: Other fathers have suffered at the hands of "move‑away moms" who permit or even use geography to drive fathers out of their children's lives.

Source: Maura Dolan, Legal Affairs Writer, "Justices Ease Relocation of Children in Divorce Cases," Los Angeles Times, April 16, 1996, p. 1. Three out of every four custodial mothers move within four years of divorce, for various reasons.


#18: "Men win custody in only 10% of contested custody cases"

(Note: To avoid confusion: the sources below do not all indicate 10%--some indicate 15 or 20%, some indicate less than 5%. As a whole, the average is around 10%.)

Source: Eleanor E. Maccoby and Robert H. Mnookin, Dividing the Child (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), pp. 104-105, 149-150.

Source: Stephen J. Bahr, J.D. Howe, M. Morrill Mann, "Trends in Custody Awards: Has the Removal of Maternal Preference Made a Difference?", Family Law Quarterly, Vol, pp. 247-267, Summer 1994.

Source: Wendy Reiboldt and Sharon Seiling, "Factors Related to Men's Award of Custody," Family Advocate, Winter 1993, pp. 42-44. Published by the Family Law Section of the American Bar Association.

Source: William T. K. Dolan, Esq., Empirical Study of Child Custody in Divorce Decrees in Arlington County, Virginia: July 1, 1989--December 30, 1990, © 1991.

Source: Rich Blake, "Father Says System is Unfair to Men in Custody Battles," Alexander (VA) Gazette Packet, October 22, 1992 .

Source: Robert Seidenberg, The Father's Emergency Guide to Divorce-Custody Battle, JES Books, 1997, pp. 11-15, 60-61.

John P. McCahey, J.D., LL.M, et al., Child Custody and Visitation Law and Practice. Matthew Bender, New York. Volume 3, 1983, Section 13.01.


#19: The commonly cited factoid that “men win custody half of the time or more when they contest it” is a myth.

Source: "Do fathers have the edge in divorce?," Cathy Young, Detroit News, December 10, 1996. See: http://www.vix.com/menmag/youngdet.htm.

Source: Robert Seidenberg, The Father's Emergency Guide to Divorce-Custody Battle, JES Books, 1997, pp. 11-15, 60-61.


#20: "According to a long-term study conducted in the United States and in New Zealand and published in Child Development, a father’s absence greatly increases the risk of teen pregnancy. The study found that it mattered little whether the child was rich or poor, black or white, born to a teen mother or an adult mother, or raised by parents with functional or dysfunctional marriages. What mattered was dad."

Source: "Father's Absence Increases Daughter's Risk of Teen Pregnancy," Health Behavior News Service, May 26, 2003


#21: "When Arizona State University psychology professor William Fabricius conducted a study of college students who had experienced their parents’ divorces while they were children, he found that over two-thirds believed that 'living equal amounts of time with each parent is the best arrangement for children.' His findings were published in Family Relations in 2003."

Source: Fabricius, W. V. (2003). Listening to children of divorce: New findings on living arrangements, college support and relocation that rebut Wallerstein, Lewis and Blakeslee (2000). Family Relations, 52, 385 – 396.


#22: "The new report, What About the Dads? Child Welfare Agencies’ Efforts to Identify, Locate, and Involve Nonresident Fathers, examines the foster care systems of four states. The report contains a shocking finding: when fathers inform child welfare officials that they would like their children to live with them, the agencies seek to place the children with their fathers in only 8% of cases."

Source: What About the Dads? Child Welfare Agencies’ Efforts to Identify, Locate, and Involve Nonresident Fathers, The Urban Institute, April 2006. Under the heading “Father Involvement” the Institute notes that half of the nonresident fathers with whom they had been in contact were interested in having their kids live with them, but that in only “4% of cases the child's case goal was placement with the father.”


#23: "According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' new report Child Maltreatment 2004, when one parent is acting without the involvement of the other parent, mothers are almost three times as likely to kill their children as fathers are, and are more than twice as likely to abuse them."

Source: Child Maltreatment 2004, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. According to Figure 4-2 “Perpetrator Relationships of Fatalities, 2004 Child Maltreatment 2004” here, child fatalities perpetrated by mothers or by “mother and other [not father]” comprise 40.6% of all child fatalities. Figure 4-2 also shows that fatalities perpetrated by fathers or by “father and other [not mother]” comprise 15.6% of all child fatalities. According to Figure 3-6 “Victims by Perpetrator Relationship, 2004 Child Maltreatment 2004,” here child abuse perpetrated by mothers or by “mother and other [not father]” comprise 45.6% of all child abuse. Figure 3-6 also shows that abuse perpetrated by fathers or by “father and other [not mother]” comprise 19.5% of all child abuse.


#24: "What About the Dads? makes it clear that many child welfare workers treat fathers as an afterthought. The report found that even when a caseworker had been in contact with a child’s father, the caseworker was still five times less likely to know basic information about the father than about the mother. And 20% of the fathers whose identity and location were known by the child welfare agencies from the opening of the case were never even contacted."

Source: What About the Dads? Child Welfare Agencies’ Efforts to Identify, Locate, and Involve Nonresident Fathers, The Urban Institute, April 2006. In the research summary here the Institute says “One in five fathers whose identity and location were known at case opening were nonetheless never contacted by the child welfare agency.” The Institute also compared the caseworkers’ knowledge of information about the mothers and about the fathers with whom they had been in contact. They write “Caseworkers much more often answered ‘don't know’ to questions about a child's father when they had readily available similar information on the mother. Typically, caseworkers reported not knowing information about mothers 1% to 5% of the time, depending on the item, while for fathers with whom they had been in contact, ‘don't know’ responses were more often around 15%." Since the range they gave for mothers was 1% to 5%, I took the middle--3%--and compared it with the figure for fathers, 15%.

"According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' new report Child Maltreatment 2004, when one parent is acting without the involvement of the other parent, mothers are almost three times as likely to kill their children as fathers are, and are more than twice as likely to abuse them."

Source: Child Maltreatment 2004, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. According to Figure 4-2 “Perpetrator Relationships of Fatalities, 2004 Child Maltreatment 2004” here, child fatalities perpetrated by mothers or by “mother and other [not father]” comprise 40.6% of all child fatalities. Figure 4-2 also shows that fatalities perpetrated by fathers or by “father and other [not mother]” comprise 15.6% of all child fatalities. According to Figure 3-6 “Victims by Perpetrator Relationship, 2004 Child Maltreatment 2004,” here child abuse perpetrated by mothers or by “mother and other [not father]” comprise 45.6% of all child abuse. Figure 3-6 also shows that abuse perpetrated by fathers or by “father and other [not mother]” comprise 19.5% of all child abuse.

#25: "A study by psychologist Joan Kelly, published in the Family and Conciliation Courts Review, found that children of divorce 'express higher levels of satisfaction with joint physical custody than with sole custody arrangements,' and cite the 'benefit of remaining close to both parents” as an important factor.'"

Source: Kelly, J., Current research on children's postdivorce adjustment. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 31.29-49, 1993


#26: "A Harvard University study of 517 families conducted across a four-and-a-half year period measured depression, deviance, school effort, and school grades in children ranging in age from 10 to 18. The researchers found that the children in joint custody settings fared better on these indices than those in sole custody."

Source: Buchanan, C., Maccoby, and Dornbusch, Adolescents After Divorce, Harvard University Press, 1996.


#27: "According to psychologist Robert Bauserman's meta-analysis of 33 studies of children of divorce, which was published in the American Psychological Association‘s Journal of Family Psychology, children in shared custody settings had fewer behavior and emotional problems, higher self-esteem, better family relations, and better school performance than children in sole custody arrangements."

Source: Bauserman, R., "Child Adjustment in Joint-Custody Versus Sole-Custody Arrangements: A Meta-Analytic Review", Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 16, No. 1, (2002) 91-102.


#28: "Even after controlling for all major socioeconomic factors, including income, teens not living with their fathers were twice as likely to abuse drugs as those living in intact, two-parent married families."

Source: Hoffmann, John P., and Robert A. Johnson. "A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use." Journal of Marriage and the Family 60 (August 1998): 633-645.


#29: "A published Harvard review of four major studies found that, accounting for all major socioeconomic factors, children without a father in the home are twice as likely to drop out of high school or repeat a grade as children who live with their fathers."

Source: Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, Growing Up with a Single Parent (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994), p. 41. The four national surveys reviewed were: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the High School and Beyond Study, and the National Survey of Families and Households.

http://www.glennsacks.com/blog/?page_id=1000

British Muslim population 'rising 10 times faster than rest of society'

LINK

From the Times:

January 30, 2009
Muslim population 'rising 10 times faster than rest of society'

Quote:

The Muslim population in Britain has grown by more than 500,000 to 2.4 million in just four years, according to official research collated for The Times.

The population multiplied 10 times faster than the rest of society, the research by the Office for National Statistics reveals. In the same period the number of Christians in the country fell by more than 2 million.

Experts said that the increase was attributable to immigration, a higher birthrate and conversions to Islam during the period of 2004-2008, when the data was gathered. They said that it also suggested a growing willingness among believers to describe themselves as Muslims because the western reaction to war and terrorism had strengthened their sense of identity.

Muslim leaders have welcomed the growing population of their communities as academics highlighted the implications for British society, integration and government resources.

David Coleman, Professor of Demography at Oxford University, said: “The implications are very substantial. Some of the Muslim population, by no means all of them, are the least socially and economically integrated of any in the United Kingdom ... and the one most associated with political dissatisfaction. You can't assume that just because the numbers are increasing that all will increase, but it will be one of several reasonable suppositions that might arise.”

Professor Coleman said that Muslims would naturally reap collective benefits from the increase in population. “In the growth of any population ... [its] voice is regarded as being stronger in terms of formulating policy, not least because we live in a democracy where most people in most religious groups and most racial groups have votes. That necessarily means their opinions have to be taken and attention to be paid to them.”

There are more than 42.6 million Christians in Britain, according to the Office for National Statistics, whose figures were obtained through the quarterly Labour Force Survey of around 53,000 homes. But while the biggest Christian population is among over-70s bracket, for Muslims it is the under-4s.

Friday, September 04, 2009

Den Islamska reformationen

Klicka här för att läsa Mikael Johanssons text "Den Islamska reformationen-Salafism, islamism och jihad" på Newsmill.

Citat:

Om man i ett tidigt skede hade tagit Hitler på allvar, det vill säga tagit honom på hans ord om hans avsikter hade kanske inte judeutrotningen och det tredje rikets brott inte inträffat. På samma sätt hävdar jag måste vi lyssna på vad salafisterna och islamisterna faktiskt säger och vilka heliga textsekvenser de gärna citerar, även denna gång är de kanske mer uppriktiga än vad många av oss vill tro.

...

På samma sätt som man om upplyser om nazismens och kommunismens brott mot mänskligheten anser jag att islam med sina totalitära och universella ambitioner också måste belysas och diskuteras.

3376 car fires in Sweden in 2008

Quotes from the established Swedish daily Sydvenskan on the 2nd of September 2009:

Thereby all four fires are likely classified as "damage through fire". This is by far the most common classification of car fires.

In the year 2008 there were 161 car fires in the Malmö municipality according to the Rescue Services, which is almost three times as many as in 1996.
The increase has been steady. The figure for the country as a whole was 3376 in 2008.

...

The majority of the car fires in Sweden are arsons, and are often scams according to the insurance company "If", which has a third of the private car market.

The original quotes in Swedish:

Därmed betecknas sannolikt alla fyra bränderna som "skadegörelse genom brand". Detta är den överlägset vanligaste rubriceringen vad gäller bilbränder.

År 2008 inträffade 161 bilbränder i Malmö kommun enligt räddningsverkets statistik, det är nästan tre gånger så många som 1996. Ökningen har varit stadig. Summan för hela landet 2008 var 3 376.

...

Majoriteten av bilbränderna i landet är anlagda, och är ofta bedrägerier, enligt försäkringsbolaget If, som har en tredjedel av personbilsmarknaden.

Source:

Bilar brann i Malmö och Lund
Av Joakim Palmkvist
Publicerad 2 september 2009 21.45 | Uppdaterad 3 september 2009 0.37
sydsvenskan.se

LÄNK

Thursday, September 03, 2009

"Terror`s stealth weapon: women"

LINK

From the Los Angeles Times:

Terror's stealth weapon: women
By Mia Bloom, MIA BLOOM is the author of "Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror" (Columbia University Press, 2005). A longer version of this article appeared in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists.
November 29, 2005

Terror's stealth weapon: women
By Mia Bloom, MIA BLOOM is the author of "Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror" (Columbia University Press, 2005). A longer version of this article appeared in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists.
November 29, 2005

Quote:

SAJIDA RISHAWI shocked the world when she appeared on Jordanian television and admitted her role in the plot to blow up a wedding at a hotel in Amman on Nov. 9. Her monotone speech and lack of emotion sparked an instant debate regarding the growing role of female terrorists and suicide bombers.

The stereotype exploited by terrorists is that women are gentle, submissive and nonviolent. Women evade most terrorist profiles because they are perceived as wives and mothers, victims of war-torn societies, not bombers. But terrorist organizations are increasingly employing women to carry out the most deadly attacks.

Based on my study of suicide bombings in Chechnya, Sri Lanka, Israel and the occupied territories, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt and Iraq, 34% of attacks since 1985 have been carried out by women.

The use of the least-likely suspect is an obvious tactical adaptation for a terrorist group under scrutiny. Female operatives not only better penetrate a crowd of civilians because women are assumed to be noncombatants, they get more publicity than their male counterparts. And using women can mobilize greater numbers of operatives by shaming men into participating. "I am going to fight instead of the sleeping Arab armies who are watching Palestinian girls fighting alone," said Ayat Akras in the martyrdom video she taped before she blew herself up in Israel in 2002.

In the past, women's primary contribution to suicide terrorism was to give birth to fighters, to raise them in a revolutionary environment and to praise them after their deaths. Women are now taking a leading role of their own -- using their bodies as human detonators for the explosive material strapped around their waists. To complicate the notions of femininity and motherhood, the explosive device is often disguised under a bomber's clothing to make her appear pregnant and thus even further beyond suspicion. Female suicide bombers have transformed the revolutionary womb into an exploding one.

Initially, only secular groups employed women. Islamist organizations such as Islamic Jihad refused female operatives. A Palestinian suicide volunteer named Dareen abu Aisheh blew herself up in 2002 on behalf of a secular organization after having being turned away by her first choice, Hamas, according to her relatives. That changed after the second war in Chechnya, when in 2002 the so-called Black Widows took a leading role in bombing Russian concert halls, hotels and trains. Women have now been used in suicide bombings throughout the Middle East and North Africa, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Pakistan and Colombia.

Al Qaeda, the last holdout, initiated a special website in August 2004, calling on women to persuade their men to take up the jihad. The pretty pink website, which included beauty tips, did not call on women to become bombers. Nevertheless, women affiliated with Al Qaeda began blowing themselves up within the year.

Wednesday, September 02, 2009

A fifth of European Union will be Muslim by 2050

LINK

From telegraph.co.uk:

A fifth of European Union will be Muslim by 2050
Britain, Spain and Holland will have an even higher proportion of Muslims in a shorter amount of time, an investigation by The Telegraph shows.
By Adrian Michaels
Published: 10:56AM BST 08 Aug 2009

Quote:

Last year, five per cent of the total population of the 27 EU countries was Muslim. But rising levels of immigration from Muslim countries and low birth rates among Europe's indigenous population mean that, by 2050, the figure will be 20 per cent, according to forecasts.

Data gathered from various sources indicate that Britain, Spain and Holland will have an even higher proportion of Muslims in a shorter amount of time.

Mohammed is most popular boy's name in four biggest Dutch cities

LINK

From telegraph.co.uk:

Mohammed is most popular boy's name in four biggest Dutch cities
Mohammed, or other variations of the name of Islam's founding prophet, has become the most popular name choice for baby boys in the four biggest cities of the Netherlands.
By Bruno Waterfield
Published: 3:10PM BST 13 Aug 2009

Quotes:

Information collected by the country's social security agency has found that traditional Dutch names have been displaced in the urban centres of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht as the country's Muslim population grows.

In The Hague variations of the name Mohammed have taken first, second and fifth place in the Dutch capital's league table of most popular names for boys, replacing traditional favourites such as Jan, Luuk, Gijs or Daan.

At a national level the name Mohammed is now the 16th most popular name for boys.

The figures, obtained by the Dutch Elsevier magazine, from the Dutch Social Insurance Bank, or Sociale Verzekeringsbank (SVB), are different from the official statistics which have in the past counted various spellings of Mohammed, Muhamed, or Muhammad as different names.

Previous government name counts, separating the different versions, have avoided controversy by keeping the name of Islam's founder outside the Dutch top 20 of favourite names for baby boys.

...

Official statistics show that European societies are being transformed by immigration and demographic trends. In 2008 just five per cent of the EU's total population was Muslim. But low birth rates among Europe's indigenous population and rising immigration are having rapid and widespread effects on the population mix.

Muslim Europe: the demographic time bomb transforming our continent

LINK

From telegraph.co.uk:

Muslim Europe: the demographic time bomb transforming our continent
The EU is facing an era of vast social change, reports Adrian Michaels, and few politicians are taking notice
By Adrian Michaels
Published: 11:11AM BST 08 Aug 2009

Quotes:

Britain and the rest of the European Union are ignoring a demographic time bomb: a recent rush into the EU by migrants, including millions of Muslims, will change the continent beyond recognition over the next two decades, and almost no policy-makers are talking about it.

The numbers are startling. Only 3.2 per cent of Spain's population was foreign-born in 1998. In 2007 it was 13.4 per cent. Europe's Muslim population has more than doubled in the past 30 years and will have doubled again by 2015. In Brussels, the top seven baby boys' names recently were Mohamed, Adam, Rayan, Ayoub, Mehdi, Amine and Hamza.

Europe's low white birth rate, coupled with faster multiplying migrants, will change fundamentally what we take to mean by European culture and society. The altered population mix has far-reaching implications for education, housing, welfare, labour, the arts and everything in between. It could have a critical impact on foreign policy: a study was submitted to the US Air Force on how America's relationship with Europe might evolve.

...


Europe's low white birth rate, coupled with faster multiplying migrants, will change fundamentally what we take to mean by European culture and society. Photo: AFP/GETTY Britain and the rest of the European Union are ignoring a demographic time bomb: a recent rush into the EU by migrants, including millions of Muslims, will change the continent beyond recognition over the next two decades, and almost no policy-makers are talking about it.

The numbers are startling. Only 3.2 per cent of Spain's population was foreign-born in 1998. In 2007 it was 13.4 per cent. Europe's Muslim population has more than doubled in the past 30 years and will have doubled again by 2015. In Brussels, the top seven baby boys' names recently were Mohamed, Adam, Rayan, Ayoub, Mehdi, Amine and Hamza.

Europe's low white birth rate, coupled with faster multiplying migrants, will change fundamentally what we take to mean by European culture and society. The altered population mix has far-reaching implications for education, housing, welfare, labour, the arts and everything in between. It could have a critical impact on foreign policy: a study was submitted to the US Air Force on how America's relationship with Europe might evolve. Yet EU officials admit that these issues are not receiving the attention they deserve.

Jerome Vignon, the director for employment and social affairs at the European Commission, said that the focus of those running the EU had been on asylum seekers and the control of migration rather than the integration of those already in the bloc. "It has certainly been underestimated - there is a general rhetoric that social integration of migrants should be given as much importance as monitoring the inflow of migrants." But, he said, the rhetoric had rarely led to policy.

The countries of the EU have long histories of welcoming migrants, but in recent years two significant trends have emerged. Migrants have come increasingly from outside developed economies, and they have come in accelerating numbers.

The growing Muslim population is of particular interest. This is not because Muslims are the only immigrants coming into the EU in large numbers; there are plenty of entrants from all points of the compass. But Muslims represent a particular set of issues beyond the fact that atrocities have been committed in the West in the name of Islam.

America's Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, part of the non-partisan Pew Research Center, said in a report: "These [EU] countries possess deep historical, cultural, religious and linguistic traditions. Injecting hundreds of thousands, and in some cases millions, of people who look, speak and act differently into these settings often makes for a difficult social fit."

How dramatic are the population changes? Everyone is aware that certain neighbourhoods of certain cities in Europe are becoming more Muslim, and that the change is gathering pace. But raw details are hard to come by as the data is sensitive: many countries in the EU do not collect population statistics by religion.

EU numbers on general immigration tell a story on their own. In the latter years of the 20th century, the 27 countries of the EU attracted half a million more people a year than left. "Since 2002, however," the latest EU report says, "net migration into the EU has roughly tripled to between 1.6 million and two million people per year."

The increased pace has made a nonsense of previous forecasts. In 2004 the EU thought its population would decline by 16 million by 2050. Now it thinks it will increase by 10 million by 2060. Britain is expected to become the most populous EU country by 2060, with 77 million inhabitants. Right now it has 20 million fewer people than Germany. Italy's population was expected to fall precipitously; now it is predicted to stay flat.

The study for the US Air Force by Leon Perkowski in 2006 found that there were at least 15 million Muslims in the EU, and possibly as many as 23 million. They are not uniformly distributed, of course. According to the US's Migration Policy Institute, residents of Muslim faith will account for more than 20 per cent of the EU population by 2050 but already do so in a number of cities. Whites will be in a minority in Birmingham by 2026, says Christopher Caldwell, an American journalist, and even sooner in Leicester. Another forecast holds that Muslims could outnumber non-Muslims in France and perhaps in all of western Europe by mid-century. Austria was 90 per cent Catholic in the 20th century but Islam could be the majority religion among Austrians aged under 15 by 2050, says Mr Caldwell.

The study for the US Air Force by Leon Perkowski in 2006 found that there were at least 15 million Muslims in the EU, and possibly as many as 23 million. They are not uniformly distributed, of course. According to the US's Migration Policy Institute, residents of Muslim faith will account for more than 20 per cent of the EU population by 2050 but already do so in a number of cities. Whites will be in a minority in Birmingham by 2026, says Christopher Caldwell, an American journalist, and even sooner in Leicester. Another forecast holds that Muslims could outnumber non-Muslims in France and perhaps in all of western Europe by mid-century. Austria was 90 per cent Catholic in the 20th century but Islam could be the majority religion among Austrians aged under 15 by 2050, says Mr Caldwell.

Projected growth rates are a disputed area. Birth rates can be difficult to predict and migrant numbers can ebb and flow. But Karoly Lorant, a Hungarian economist who wrote a paper for the European Parliament, calculates that Muslims already make up 25 per cent of the population in Marseilles and Rotterdam, 20 per cent in Malmo, 15 per cent in Brussels and Birmingham and 10 per cent in London, Paris and Copenhagen.

...

Policy Exchange, a British study group, found that more than 70 per cent of Muslims over 55 felt that they had as much in common with non-Muslims as Muslims. But this fell to 62 per cent of 16-24 year-olds.

The population changes are stirring unease on the ground. Europeans often tell pollsters that they have had enough immigration, but politicians largely avoid debate.

...

The EU says employment rates for non-EU nationals are lower than for nationals, which holds back economic advancement and integration. One important reason for this is a lack of language skills. The Migration Policy Institute says that, in 2007, 28 per cent of children born in England and Wales had at least one foreign-born parent. That rose to 54 per cent in London. Overall in 2008, 14.4 per cent of children in primary schools had a language other than English as their first language.

Tuesday, September 01, 2009

Raymond Ibrahim: Islam's doctrines of deception

From the Middle East Forum:

Islam's doctrines of deception
by Raymond Ibrahim
Jane's Islamic Affairs Analyst
October 2008
http://www.meforum.org/2095/islams-doctrines-of-deception

To better understand Islam, one must appreciate the thoroughly legalistic nature of the religion. According to sharia (Islamic law) every conceivable human act is categorised as being either forbidden, discouraged, permissible, recommended, or obligatory.

"Common sense" or "universal opinion" has little to do with Islam's notions of right and wrong. Only what Allah (through the Quran) and his prophet Muhammad (through the Hadith) have to say about any given issue matters; and how Islam's greatest theologians and jurists – collectively known as the ulema, literally, "they who know" – have articulated it.

According to sharia, in certain situations, deception – also known as 'taqiyya', based on Quranic terminology, – is not only permitted but sometimes obligatory. For instance, contrary to early Christian history, Muslims who must choose between either recanting Islam or being put to death are not only permitted to lie by pretending to have apostatised, but many jurists have decreed that, according to Quran 4:29, Muslims are obligated to lie in such instances.

Origins of taqiyya

As a doctrine, taqiyya was first codified by Shia Muslims, primarily as a result of their historical experience. Long insisting that the caliphate rightly belonged to the prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali (and subsequently his descendents), the Shia were a vocal and powerful branch of Islam that emerged following Muhammad's death. After the internal Islamic Fitna wars from the years 656 AD to 661 AD, however, the Shia became a minority branch, persecuted by mainstream Muslims or Sunnis – so-called because they follow the example or 'sunna' of Muhammad and his companions. Taqiyya became pivotal to Shia survival.

Interspersed among the much more numerous Sunnis, who currently make up approximately 90 per cent of the Islamic world, the Shia often performed taqiyya by pretending to be Sunnis externally, while maintaining Shia beliefs internally, as permitted by Quranic verse 16:106. Even today, especially in those Muslim states where there is little religious freedom, the Shia still practice taqiyya. In Saudi Arabia, for instance, Shias are deemed by many of the Sunni majority to be heretics, traitors and infidels and like other non-Sunni Muslims they are often persecuted.

Several of Saudi Arabia's highest clerics have even issued fatwas sanctioning the killing of Shias. As a result, figures on the Arabian kingdom's Shia population vary wildly from as low as 1 per cent to nearly 20 per cent. Many Shias living there obviously choose to conceal their religious identity. As a result of some 1,400 years of Shia taqiyya, the Sunnis often accuse the Shias of being habitual liars, insisting that taqiyya is ingrained in Shia culture.

Conversely, the Sunnis have historically had little reason to dissemble or conceal any aspect of their faith, which would have been deemed dishonorable, especially when dealing with their historic competitors and enemies, the Christians. From the start, Islam burst out of Arabia subjugating much of the known world, and, throughout the Middle Ages, threatened to engulf all of Christendom. In a world where might made right, the Sunnis had nothing to apologise for, much less to hide from the 'infidel'.

Paradoxically, however, today many Sunnis are finding themselves in the Shias' place: living as minorities in Western countries surrounded and governed by their traditional foes. The primary difference is that, extremist Sunnis and Shia tend to reject each other outright, as evidenced by the ongoing Sunni-Shia struggle in Iraq, whereas, in the West, where freedom of religion is guaranteed, Sunnis need only dissemble over a few aspects of their faith.

Articulation of taqiyya

According to the authoritative Arabic text, Al-Taqiyya Fi Al-Islam: "Taqiyya [deception] is of fundamental importance in Islam. Practically every Islamic sect agrees to it and practices it. We can go so far as to say that the practice of taqiyya is mainstream in Islam, and that those few sects not practicing it diverge from the mainstream...Taqiyya is very prevalent in Islamic politics, especially in the modern era."

The primary Quranic verse sanctioning deception with respect to non-Muslims states: "Let believers not take for friends and allies infidels instead of believers. Whoever does this shall have no relationship left with Allah – unless you but guard yourselves against them, taking precautions." (Quran 3:28; see also 2:173; 2:185; 4:29; 22:78; 40:28.)

Al-Tabari's (838-923 AD) Tafsir, or Quranic exegeses, is essentially a standard reference in the entire Muslim world. Regarding 3:28, he wrote: "If you [Muslims] are under their [infidels'] authority, fearing for yourselves, behave loyally to them, with your tongue, while harbouring inner animosity for them... Allah has forbidden believers from being friendly or on intimate terms with the infidels in place of believers – except when infidels are above them [in authority]. In such a scenario, let them act friendly towards them."

Regarding 3:28, the Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir (1301-1373) wrote: "Whoever at any time or place fears their [infidels'] evil, may protect himself through outward show."

As proof of this, he quotes Muhammad's companions. Abu Darda said: "Let us smile to the face of some people while our hearts curse them." Al-Hassan said: "Doing taqiyya is acceptable till the day of judgment [in perpetuity]."

Other prominent ulema, such as al- Qurtubi , al-Razi, and al-Arabi have extended taqiyya to cover deeds. Muslims can behave like infidels – from bowing down and worshipping idols and crosses to even exposing fellow Muslims' "weak spots" to the infidel enemy – anything short of actually killing a fellow Muslim.

War is deceit

None of this should be surprising considering that Muhammad himself, whose example as the "most perfect human" is to be tenaciously followed, took an expedient view on the issue of deception. For instance, Muhammad permitted deceit in three situations: to reconcile two or more quarreling parties; husband to wife and vice-versa; and in war (See Sahih Muslim B32N6303, deemed an "authentic" hadith).

During the Battle of the Trench (627 AD), which pitted Muhammad and his followers against several non-Muslim tribes collectively known as "the Confederates", a Confederate called Naim bin Masud went to the Muslim camp and converted to Islam. When Muhammad discovered the Confederates were unaware of Masud's conversion, he counseled him to return and try somehow to get his tribesmen to abandon the siege. "For war is deceit," Muhammad assured him.

Masud returned to the Confederates without their knowledge that he had switched sides and began giving his former kin and allies bad advice. He also went to great lengths to instigate quarrels between the various tribes until, thoroughly distrusting each other, they disbanded and lifted the siege. According to this account, deceit saved Islam during its embryonic stage (see Al-Taqiyya Fi Al-Islam; also, Ibn Ishaq's Sira, the earliest biography of Muhammad).

More demonstrative of the legitimacy of deception with respect to non-Muslims is the following account. A poet, Kab bin al-Ashruf, had offended Muhammad by making derogatory verse about Muslim women. Muhammad exclaimed in front of his followers: "Who will kill this man who has hurt Allah and his prophet?"

A young Muslim named Muhammad bin Maslama volunteered, but with the caveat that, in order to get close enough to Kab to assassinate him, he be allowed to lie to the poet. Muhammad agreed.

Maslama traveled to Kab and began denigrating Islam and Muhammad, carrying on this way till his disaffection became convincing enough for Kab to take him into his confidences. Soon thereafter, Maslama appeared with another Muslim and, while Kab's guard was down, they assaulted and killed him. They ran to Muhammad with Kab's head, to which the latter cried: "Allahu akbar" or "God is great" (see the hadith accounts of Sahih Bukhari and Ibn Sad).

The entire sequence of Quranic revelations are a testimony to taqiyya and, since Allah is believed to be the revealer of these verses, he ultimately is seen as the perpetrator of deceit. This is not surprising since Allah himself is often described in the Quran as the "best deceiver" or "schemer." (see 3:54, 8:30, 10:21). This phenomenon revolves around the fact that the Quran contains both peaceful and tolerant verses, as well as violent and intolerant ones.

The ulema were uncertain which verses to codify into sharia's worldview. For instance, should they use the one that states there is no coercion in religion (2:256), or the ones that command believers to fight all non-Muslims until they either convert or at least submit to Islam (9:5, 9:29)? To solve this quandary, they developed the doctrine of abrogation – naskh, supported by Quran 2:105. This essentially states that verses "revealed" later in Muhammad's career take precedence over those revealed earlier whenever there is a discrepancy.

Why the contradiction in the first place? The standard answer has been that, because Muhammad and his community were far outnumbered by the infidels in the early years of Islam, a message of peace and co-existence was in order. However, after Muhammad migrated to Medina and grew in military strength and numbers, the militant or intolerant verses were revealed, urging Muslims to go on the offensive.

According to this standard view, circumstance dictates which verses are to be implemented. When Muslims are weak, they should preach and behave according to the Meccan verses; when strong, they should go on the offensive, according to the Medinan verses. Many Islamic books extensively deal with the doctrine of abrogation, or Al-Nasikh Wa Al-Mansukh.

War is eternal

The fact that Islam legitimises deceit during war cannot be all that surprising; strategist Sun Tzu (c. 722-221 BC), Italian political philosopher Machiavelli (1469-1527) and English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) all justified deceit in war.

However, according to all four recognised schools of Sunni jurisprudence, war against the infidel goes on in perpetuity, until "all chaos ceases, and all religion belongs to Allah" (Quran 8:39). According to the definitive Encyclopaedia of Islam (Brill Online edition): "The duty of the jihad exists as long as the universal domination of Islam has not been attained. Peace with non-Muslim nations is, therefore, a provisional state of affairs only; the chance of circumstances alone can justify it temporarily. Furthermore there can be no question of genuine peace treaties with these nations; only truces, whose duration ought not, in principle, to exceed ten years, are authorised. But even such truces are precarious, inasmuch as they can, before they expire, be repudiated unilaterally should it appear more profitable for Islam to resume the conflict."

The concept of obligatory jihad is best expressed by Islam's dichotomised worldview that pits Dar al Islam (House of Islam) against Dar al Harb (House of War or non-Muslims) until the former subsumes the latter. Muslim historian and philosopher, Ibn Khaldun (1332- 1406), articulated this division by saying: "In the Muslim community, holy war [jihad] is a religious duty, because of the universalism of the Muslim mission and the obligation to convert everybody to Islam either by persuasion or by force. The other religious groups did not have a universal mission, and the holy war was not a religious duty for them, save only for purposes of defence. But Islam is under obligation to gain power over other nations."

This concept is highlighted by the fact that, based on the ten-year treaty of Hudaibiya , ratified between Muhammad and his Quraish opponents in Mecca (628), ten years is theoretically the maximum amount of time Muslims can be at peace with infidels (as indicated earlier by the Encyclopaedia of Islam). Based on Muhammad's example of breaking the treaty after two years, by citing a Quraish infraction, the sole function of the "peace-treaty" (hudna) is to buy weakened Muslims time to regroup for a renewed offensive. Muhammad is quoted in the Hadith saying: "If I take an oath and later find something else better, I do what is better and break my oath (see Sahih Bukhari V7B67N427)."

This might be what former PLO leader and Nobel Peace Prize winner Yasser Arafat meant when, after negotiating a peace treaty criticised by his opponents as conceding too much to Israel, he said in a mosque: "I see this agreement as being no more than the agreement signed between our Prophet Muhammad and the Quraish in Mecca."

On several occasions Hamas has made it clear that its ultimate aspiration is to see Israel destroyed. Under what context would it want to initiate a "temporary" peace with the Jewish state? When Osama bin Laden offered the US a truce, stressing that "we [Muslims] are a people that Allah has forbidden from double-crossing and lying," what was his ultimate intention?

Based on the above, these are instances of Muslim extremists feigning openness to the idea of peace simply in order to bide time.

If Islam must be in a constant state of war with the non-Muslim world – which need not be physical, as radicals among the ulema have classified several non-literal forms of jihad, such as "jihad-of-the-pen" (propaganda), and "money-jihad" (economic) – and if Muslims are permitted to lie and feign loyalty to the infidel to further their war efforts, offers of peace, tolerance or dialogue from extremist Muslim corners are called into question.

Religious obligation?

Following the terrorist attacks on the United States of 11 September 2001, a group of prominent Muslims wrote a letter to Americans saying that Islam is a tolerant religion that seeks to coexist with others.

Bin Laden castigated them, saying: "As to the relationship between Muslims and infidels, this is summarised by the Most High's Word: 'We renounce you. Enmity and hate shall forever reign between us – till you believe in Allah alone' [Quran 60:4]. So there is an enmity, evidenced by fierce hostility from the heart. And this fierce hostility – that is battle – ceases only if the infidel submits to the authority of Islam, or if his blood is forbidden from being shed [a dhimmi – a non-Muslim subject living as a "second-class" citizen in an Islamic state in accordance to Quran 9:29], or if Muslims are at that point in time weak and incapable [a circumstance under which taqiyya applies]. But if the hate at any time extinguishes from the heart, this is great apostasy! Such, then, is the basis and foundation of the relationship between the infidel and the Muslim. Battle, animosity and hatred, directed from the Muslim to the infidel, is the foundation of our religion. And we consider this a justice and kindness to them."

This hostile world view is traceable to Islam's schools of jurisprudence. When addressing Western audiences, however, Bin Laden's tone significantly changes. He lists any number of grievances as reasons for fighting the West – from Israeli policies towards Palestinians to the Western exploitation of women and US failure to sign the Kyoto protocol – never alluding to fighting the US simply because it is an infidel entity that must be subjugated. He often initiates his messages to the West by saying: "Reciprocal treatment is part of justice."

This is a clear instance of taqiyya, as Bin Laden is not only waging a physical jihad, but one of propaganda. Convincing the West that the current conflict is entirely its fault garners him and his cause more sympathy. Conversely, he also knows that if his Western audiences were to realise that, all real or imagined political grievances aside, according to the Islamic worldview delineated earlier, which bin Laden does accept, nothing short of their submission to Islam can ever bring peace, his propaganda campaign would be compromised. As a result there is constant lying, "for war is deceit".

If Bin Laden's words and actions represent an individual case of taqiyya, they raise questions about Saudi Arabia's recent initiatives for "dialogue". Saudi Arabia closely follows sharia. For instance, the Saudi government will not allow the construction of churches or synagogues on its land; Bibles are banned and burned. Christians engaged in any kind of missionary activity are arrested, tortured, and sometimes killed. Muslim converts to Christianity can be put to death in the kingdom.

Despite such limitations on religious freedom, the Saudis have been pushing for more dialogue between Muslims and non-Muslims. At the most recent inter-faith conference in Madrid in July 2008, King Abdullah asserted: "Islam is a religion of moderation and tolerance, a message that calls for constructive dialogue among followers of all religions."

Days later, it was revealed that Saudi children's textbooks still call Christians and Jews "infidels", "hated enemies" and "pigs and swine". A multiple-choice test in a book for fourth-graders asks: "Who is a 'true' Muslim?" The correct answer is not the man who prays and fasts, but rather: "A man who worships God alone, loves the believers and hates the infidels". These infidels are the same people the Saudis want dialogue with. This raises the question of whether, when Saudis call for dialogue, they are merely following Muhammad's companion Abu Darda's advice: "Let us smile to the face of some people while our hearts curse them"?

There is also a philosophical – more particularly, epistemological – problem with taqiyya. Anyone who truly believes that no less an authority than God justifies and, through his prophet's example, sometimes even encourages deception, will not experience any ethical qualms or dilemmas about lying. This is especially true if the human mind is indeed a tabula rasa shaped by environment and education. Deception becomes second nature.

Consider the case of former Al-Qaeda operative, Ali Mohammad. Despite being entrenched in the highest echelons of the terrorism network, Mohammed's confidence at dissembling enabled him to become a CIA agent and FBI informant for years. People who knew him regarded him "with fear and awe for his incredible self-confidence, his inability to be intimidated, absolute ruthless determination to destroy the enemies of Islam, and his zealous belief in the tenets of militant Islamic fundamentalism", according to Steven Emerson. Indeed, this sentiment sums it all up: for a zealous belief in Islam's tenets, which, as has been described above, legitimises deception, will certainly go a long way in creating incredible self-confidence when deceiving one's enemies.

Exposing a doctrine

All of the above is an exposition on doctrine and its various manifestations, not an assertion on the actual practices of the average Muslim. The deciding question is how literally any given Muslim follows sharia and its worldview.

So-called "moderate" Muslims – or, more specifically, secularised Muslims – do not closely adhere to sharia, and therefore have little to dissemble about. On the other hand, "radical" Muslims who closely observe sharia law, which splits the world into two perpetually warring halves, will always have a "divinely sanctioned" right to deceive, until "all chaos ceases, and all religion belongs to Allah" (Quran 8:39).